SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Fall 2018


MULTIPLE CHOICE.

On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.


        1. The middle step of both aerobic respiration and photosynthesis involves

_______    a. An electron transport chain            b. Some sort of cycle            c. An acid-base reaction
                d. Something with half-glucose molecules            e. Something that’s not at the beginning…or the end…


        2. Cytokinesis happens when

_______    a. Cells divide         b. Cells migrate        c. Populations migrate         d. Enzymes activate
                                                    e. People who speak Latin name things


        3. When a group almost goes extinct, it can create a

_______    a. Temporal shift         b. Founder effect        c. Crossing over effect         d. Bottleneck effect
                                        e. Loss of friends - they’re always complaining!


        4. Which works by lowering activation energy?

_______    a. Chemosynthesis         b. Photosynthesis        c. Cofactors         d. Enzymes
                                        e. I’m not sure my energy could get any lower


        5. Embryo cells become tissues through

_______    a. Mutation         b. Differentiation         c. Fertilization        d. Activation
                                            e. A lengthy application process


        6. ATP can do its job by

_______    a. Transferring phosphates onto molecules        b. Being a structural carbohydrate
                c. Absorbing light and reradiating it                    d. Converting into APP
                                            e. Asking very politely


        7. Which process is most likely to produce extra copies of genes in offspring?

_______    a. Mosaicism         b. Fusion         c. Crossing over        d. Hybrid vigor
                                                e. Ordering more on Amazon



        8. In many chemical reactions, there’s less energy in the products than was in the reactants.
                    The “extra” energy

_______    a. Disappears         b. Is recycled         c. Is lost as heat        d. Goes back to the reactants
                                                     e. Is used for bitcoins



        9. How much more efficient (in terms of ATP production) is the aerobic part of aerobic respiration,
                    compared to the anaerobic part (approximately)?

_______    a. 2 times         b. 4 times         c. 100 times        d. 17 times         e. A bunch


        10. Which is not a critical nutrient for plants?

_______    a. Minerals         b. Phosphates         c. Chlorophyll         d. Nitrates         e. Twizzlers


        11. Evolution turns out to be changes over time in

_______    a. Cofactors         b. Metabolic pathway         c. Entropy        d. Gene pool         e. Popularity


        12. The most productive part (most ATP) of aerobic respiration is

_______    a. Photosynthesis         b. Electron transport chain        c. Krebs cycle
                d. Glycolysis                        e.  ATP-makin' thingee



SHORT ANSWER.

Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. What exactly happens when a protein denatures?



2. What are two different body systems that start as mesoderm?

 

3. What are two different nitrogenous wastes?

 

4. During fertilization, what goes through fusion?



5. What are two different challenges to living things that were the first moving from the water to the land?

 

6. For oxygen debt -
In what type
of tissues?
What
is it?

7. What two things are coupled in a coupled reaction?


 

8. What happens during interphase that is -
MITOSIS
RELATED?
NOT
MITOSIS
RELATED?

9. What exactly is a vitamin?



10. What are HOX genes?

11. What are two requirements for a Hardy-Weinberg population? (not the alleles)


 

12. The two different major uses for carotenoids in plants -

 

13. Give a definition for each -
CENTRIOLE -

CENTROMERE -


14. Living things from which two types of ecosystems were probably the first to become land-living species?

 

15. The two main uses for glucose in plants -

 

16. For a cell plate -
Where & when
would one be found?
What is
it?


LONG ANSWER.

Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.
1.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list:
Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.
         High Frequency       \           Visible Range          /            Low Frequency        
     
  *                              *   /   *       *                         *   \   *



2.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.
 

Cambrian
Explosion

 

 Aerobic
Respiration

 

Snowball
Period

  Photosynthesis
  Movement
onto Land
 

Molecular
Competition

 

Prokaryote
Cells

 

Primordial
Soup


3.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans?


 


 

4.  Below is a graph showing how enzyme activity, measured through the rate of the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme, reacts to changes in pH (NOT temperature!). Fill in: A) The name given to the pH where the graph peaks; B) Why the graph peaks there; C) and D) What's happening to the enzyme molecules as the rate drops off (C) below the peak; and (D) above the peak.

                                                                    
                                                                          *   A
                                                                  *                *
                                                              *                        *
Reaction                                      C    *                             *   D
Rate                                                 *                                   * 
                                                       *                                       *
                                                  *                                                    *
                                         *                                                                       *
                          *****                                                                                         ******
                                                                           B                                                                  
 

                                                                    pH ---->


5.  For the four phases of mitosis (so not the one between), name the phases in order and give one specific thing for each that happens particularly in that phase.


 


 


 


 

6.  Briefly describe the three different ways that enzyme inhibitors can work.

 



 

7.  Describe (don’t just give a term) four different types of reproductive isolation.


 


 

8.  For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Name
 
Exact Materials or Energy Used
   
Exact Materials Produced
   


Link to Answer Key

BONUS QUESTIONS.
Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.


What is the “spindle pull rule”? Three Points.


What is the purpose of a polar body? Three Points.


What part of the sperm cell absolutely is not supposed to get into the egg cell? Three Points.

The study of what specific diseases led to the discovery of hybrid vigor? Three Points Each.

What type of organisms have been found to be mechanically isolated? Three Points.


How do living things “break” (but not really) the second law of thermodynamics? Three Points.


What sort of substances are often irreversible enzyme competitors? Three Points.


Why do lipids have so many Calories? Three Points.


What’s the wackier version of panspermia? Three Points.


Where could you go today to find natural examples of the materials of primordial soup? Three Points Each.



What one topic on the sheet did we not quite get to? Three Points.


Why will species from the land that are now full-time back in the water never be able to breathe water? Three Points.

 

SCI 135 

Michael McDarby

 

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