SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Fall 2019



On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.

Three Points Each.               NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.


                        1.  Which type of cells are most at risk for becoming cancerous?

_______                    a.  Very metabolically active

                                    b.  Ones that normally divide

                                    c.  Cells that were made long ago

                                    d.  Cells that normally can crawl

                                    e.  Cells that secretly hate their lives


                        2.  Plants depend upon symbionts to supply them with

_______                    a.  Carbon dioxide                            b.  Light

                                    c.  Minerals                                       d.  Nitrates

                                                    e.  Most of their “Likes”


3.  What fuses during fusion?

_______                    a.  Chromosomes                  b.  Genes                    c.  Haploid nuclei

           d.  Diploid nuclei                             e.  Can these fuses burn out?


                        4.  Researchers connect problems with breeding cheetahs to a lack of
                                                genetic diversity – they think that cheetahs almost went

                                                extinct during the last major ice age.  What effect is

                                                at play here?

_______                    a.    Genetic drift                               b.  Bottleneck effect

                                    c.    Founder effect                           d.  Residual reduction

                                                                        e.    Irony


5.  Enzymes are affected by temperature because temperature

_______                    a.  Changes how electrons move in the molecules

b.  Can break the membrane

c.  Disrupts the enzyme’s DNA

d.  Moves and shakes the molecules

                                    e.  Sneaks up behind the enzymes and frightens them


                        6.   Which would have started as ectoderm?

_______                    a.  Brain                                 b.  Intestine

                                    c.  Muscles                           d.  Lungs

                                                e.  Isn’t that an acne cream? 


                        7.   Protocells probably got started from

_______                    a.  Hydrothermal vents

                                    b.  Surface oils and stormy conditions

                                    c.  The Snowball Period

                                    d.  Aerobic respiration

                                    e.  Satellite telephones 


8.  When the leaves turn to bright colors in the fall, what are those colors?

_______                    a.  Degraded chlorophyll                b.  Cellulose              c.  Glucose

                                    d.  Carotenoids                                 e.  Nature’s makeover 


9.   When a protein denatures, it

_______                    a.  Attaches to a substrate                           b.  Changes shape

c.  Comes apart into amino acids               d.   Shifts to a new function

                                               e.  Gets really self-conscious and quiet 


10.  Plants use glucose for

_______                    a.  Feeding animals

b.  Energy storage and reproduction

c.  Energy storage and structure

d.  Reproduction and structure

                                    e.  Whatever they want - plants are evil that way 


11.  Oxygen debt typically happens in

_______                    a.  Muscles under high demand      b.  Plants in intense light

c.  Respiratory surfaces                   d.  Brain cells

                                    e.  Banks that really want you to pay them back 


 12.  What are coupled in coupled reactions?

_______                    a.  Enzymes & substrates                b.  Enzymes & coenzymes

c.  Enzymes & cofactors                d.  Exergonic & endergonic

e.  The reactions with deep, abiding respect for each other

                                                                        ...or the hot ones...


SHORT ANSWER.   Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

            Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.  What happens to the alleles in a population as that population evolves in changing conditions?




2.  For older plant growth lights -

Why are



Why are

they not



3.  How does end-product inhibition work?





4.  When ATP gets used, what are the products?






5.  What are two different things that happen during a normal meiosis that do not happen during mitosis?






6.  The first pre-living molecular systems needed to have what two abilities?






7.  What are two different abilities that cancer cells typically activate after they have become cancerous?






8.  What are the basic levels, in order, of the energy pathway through food chains?






9.   What exactly is activation energy?




10.  What sort of role in cell chemistry is generally played by minerals?




11.  For either of the first 2 Laws of Thermodynamics -

Number or







12.  In order for the Hardy-Weinberg Rule to work, what are two things that should not happen to an allele?





13.  What are the three basic types of nitrogenous wastes?






14.  What are two different abilities that early Life needed eventually, but not right away?





15.  What are Hox genes?




16.  Glucose is mostly made by what two different processes?





LONG ANSWER.  Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

            You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list: 

Violet.   X-Ray.  InfraRed.  Red.   Blue.   Ultraviolet.


              High Frequency \                Visible Range               /           Low Frequency


               *                       * /    *       *                               *       \   *




2.  Describe (don’t just give a term) four different types of reproductive isolation.















3.  Below is a graph showing how enzyme activity, measured through the rate of the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme, reacts to changes in pH (NOT temperature!).  Fill in:  A)  The name given to the pH where the graph peaks; B) Why the graph peaks there;  C) and D) What’s happening to the enzyme molecules as the rate drops off (C) below the peak; and (D) above the peak.



                                                                      *   A
                                                                  *                *
                                                              *                        *
Reaction                                      C    *                             *   D
Rate                                                 *                                   * 
                                                       *                                       *
                                                  *                                                    *
                                         *                                                                       *
                          *****                                                                                         ******

                                                                    pH ---->




4.  Briefly describe the three different ways that enzyme inhibitors can work.









5.  Give the names and something that happens in the three stages of aerobic respiration.


















6. What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans? 












7.  For the main photosynthesis reactions:




Exact Materials or Energy Used


Exact Materials Produced
















Link to Answer Key


BONUS QUESTIONS.  Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.


Hardy and Weinberg -  what was their general specialty?  Three Points.



Briefly explain how mistakes during meiosis can add to genetic information.  Three Points.



Why do polar bodies exist?  Three Points.



When human embryos become “hollow balls,” what shape are they really (Three Points), and why that shape?  Three Points.



Hybrid vigor was first discovered in the relationship between what two diseases?  Four Points.


How does convergent evolution show up in advanced cancers?  Three Points.



People complain that cancer chemotherapy is poison.  Why does it pretty much have to be?  Three Points.



Although Splenda is a sugar molecule, it has no calories.  Why?  Three Points.



What is weird about the definition of a vitamin?  Three Points.



What is a Calorie?  Three Points.



What is panspermia?  Three Points.



What “retunes” the energy in reradiation?  Three Points.



SCI 135 

Michael McDarby