SCI 135 - Fourth Exam Spring 2019


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

        1. Flowers and fruit use signaling colors made from

_______      a. Carotenoids         b. Cellulose        c. Symbionts         d. Chlorophyll
                                                e. Kits from the crafts store

        2. Glucose is split in “half” during

_______        a. Krebs / Citric Acid Cycle         b. Glycolysis        c. Electron Transport Chain
                    d. Calvin Cycle                    e. Any political discussion – so divisive!

        3. When an exergonic reaction supplies energy to an endergonic reaction, they are

_______      a. Pathway         b. Linked         c. Activated        d. Coupled         e. More than just friends

        4. By the more modern definitions, what really is changing over time as a population evolves?

_______      a. Gene pool         b. Overall total features        c. Isolation         d. Getting more perfect
                                                e. Their attitudes – they get really snooty

        5. Oxygen debt builds up in

__________     a. Anaerobic ecosystems         b. Plant cells        c. Muscle cells         d. Carotenoids
                                                    e. Accounting records of many hospitals

        6. In end-product inhibition, the end product

_______       a. Breaks down the substrates                  b. Breaks down automatically
                    c. Shuts off the last enzyme                     d. Shuts off the first enzyme
                                            e. Doesn’t like to speak in public

        7. During the early stages of the formation of life on earth, what would be the most
                                likely result if molecules were trapped in lipid bubbles?

__________      a. They would stop functioning
                        b. They would develop better systems in the protected space
                        c. They would use the bubble to swim with
                        d. They would better access environmental energy
                        e. There would probably be a viral video about it

        8. When protein molecules are broken down

__________      a. All parts are used in respiratory pathways
                        b. All parts are removed as wastes
                        c. The carbon parts go into respiration and the nitrogen parts become waste
                        d. The nitrogen parts go into respiration and the carbon parts become waste
                        e. It’s really tough to find a garage that can fix them

        9. In the deep history of Life, what didn’t appear until after there were eukaryotes?

_______    a. Aerobic respiration         b. Sexual reproduction        c. Photosynthesis         d. All of these
                                        e. Probably not politics…that seems pretty primitive

        10. The aerobic part of aerobic respiration is more efficient than the anaerobic part
                            by a factor of

__________    a. 2 : 1         b. 100 : 1         c. 1.75 : 1         d. 18 : 1
                            e. I hate when siblings are so competitive...

        11. In any metabolic pathway, some energy is lost as heat at every step.  This is connected to
                            the Law known as

_______    a. Entropy         b. Leakage         c. Conservation        d. Efficiency         e. That heat thingy

        12. Without their symbiotic bacteria or fungi, most land plants could not

_______    a. Capture light effectively         b. Make proteins        c. Absorb water         d. Hold themselves up
                                                                        e. Be as confident


Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. Name two features that both aerobic respiration and photosynthesis have exactly in common.


2. In order to qualify as “living,” what are two abilities that the first living molecules had to have?


3. What are two features that eventually had to show up in those early evolving forms?


4. What are two abilities that developing cancer usually activates as it progresses? (Not division, that’s already activated)


5. What are two different types of genes that can mutate to get a cancer started?


6. By the more modern definitions, what really is changing over time as a population evolves? (Yes, occasionally a question will accidentally get asked twice!)

7. Briefly describe the (biological) bottleneck effect.

8. What are two different ways that ATP can supply the proper “kick” to get a reaction going?


9. What, in order, are the three basic levels of a food chain?


10. Minerals commonly play what role in enzyme systems?

11. In the bell-curve plot of enzyme activity and pH, what makes the activity drop in either direction from the peak?

12. What is activation energy?

13. What are the two probable ecosystems that animals came from when they first moved from the water to the land?


14. Where inside a cell is the Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle done?

Show an overview, with compounds and energy types, of the following reactions (these are two separate questions!):
15. Aerobic Respiration:

16. Photosynthesis:


17. What are two probable causes of mass extinctions?



Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  What are four different ways that anaerobic organisms impact humans?



2.  For the main photosynthesis reactions:
Exact Materials or Energy Used
Exact Materials Produced

3.  Answer the questions on the graph for the relationship between enzyme activity and temperature. A. Why is the rate dropping off here?   B. What is this point called?    C. Why is the rate rising here?


                                                                  *                *
                                                              *                        *
Reaction                                      C    *                             *   A
Rate                                                 *                                   * 
                                                       *                                       *
                                                  *                                                    *
                                         *                                                                       *
                          *****                                                                                         ******

                                                                    Temperature ---->

4.  Describe (don’t just give a term) four different types of reproductive isolation.



5. What are four different features found for a Hardy-Weinberg allele / population?



6.  Briefly describe the three different ways that enzyme inhibitors can work.



7.   For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.

onto Land











8.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list:
Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.
         High Frequency       \           Visible Range          /            Low Frequency        
  *                              *   /   *       *                         *   \   *

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

Hybrid vigor was first discovered in the relationship between what two diseases? Four Points.

What’s the main reason why the beetles have the most species (on paper)? Three Points.

Radiation treatment for cancer typically involves focusing multiple beams at once on a tumor? Why? Three Points.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) shares an enzyme with what other process? Three Points.

What are up to two different instances where enzyme inhibition is irreversible? Three Points Each.

What molecule group is specifically just things humans can’t make? Three Points.

The weird ecosystems at hydrothermal vents were first discovered by geologists. What were they doing at the vents? Three Points.

Why is it difficult to accurately determine the Calories in food? Three Points.

What one step do all mass extinctions have in common? Three Points.

What happens in an atom or molecule that produces reradiation? Three Points.


SCI 135 

Michael McDarby


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