First Exam 2002


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.  Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.


                    1. Darwinís book on evolution:

_______          a. Evolution in the Galapagos Islands
                        b. Men from Apes
                        c. Voyage of the Beagle
                        d. On the Origin of Species
                        e. I Know What Evolved Last Summer


                    2. The finches of the Galapagos Islands, with many species all evolved from a single starting group,
                                are an example of

               a. The Hardy-Weinberg Law                         b. Adaptive radiation
                          c. Hybrid vigor                                             d. Redundancy
                                                             e. Immense confusion


                    3. The easiest circumstance to see genetic drift:

_______         a. Formerly isolated groups connect
                         b. Population leads to isolated groups in similar environments
                         c. Population leads to isolated groups in different environments
                         d. On maps showing Earth in the distant past
                         e. When your plumber bends down to look under the sink


                    4. To a geneticist, evolution works on what part of a population?

_______         a. Allele ratios                     b. Metabolism                    c. Individual organisms
                       d. Selection ratios  
                     e. The part that nobody else cares about


                    5. In evolution, the role of chance is

_______         a. Not important                                     b. Greater on a small population
                         c. Equal everywhere                               d. Greater on a large population
                                                                 e. Kinda chancy


                    6. Which ideas still strongly influence some scientific ideas on evolution?

                       a. Religion and passing on acquired characteristics
                         b. There is no impact from the nonliving environment
_______         c. Long, slow changes and movement toward a "goal"
                         d. Evolution has only worked in the past
                         e. Darwin was maybe not a nice guy


                    7. Fossil layers from different places are "matched" up using

_______         a. The general rock type                         b. The minerals present
                         c. Distance from the surface                   d. The types of fossils present
                                             e. A really bizarre dating service


                    8. The science of naming and grouping living things is called

_______         a. Label selection                 b. Husbandry                 c. Taxonomy
                         d. Title effect                                 e. Annoying by those who have to learn it


                    9. Lakes are good sites for evolution because _____ but bad because _____

_______         a. Theyíre easily isolated...they donít exist for very long
                         b. They have vastly different features...they donít support asexual reproducers
                         c. They produce fossils...but donít preserve plants
                         d. They exist everywhere...they have water
                         e. We can swim in them...we donít like mucky bottoms


                    10. What has to happen to a population to produce a bottleneck effect?

_______         a. Mutation                 b. Near-extinction                 c. Migration
                         d. Speciation                     e. I guess they need a bottle...


                    11. Mutation has a bigger evolutionary impact on

_______         a. Sexual reproducers                     b. Animals                    c. Asexual reproducers
                       d. Plants  
                                                 e. Stuff Iíd rather not know about


                    12. When it was decided that fossils were in layers of rock that used to be ocean sediments,
                                estimates of what feature soon increased?

_______         a. Age of the Earth                             b. Number of living species
                         c. Depth of the oceans                       d. Population size
                         e. Number of things to teach poor unsuspecting students




Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. Lamarck is best known for what mistaken idea about evolution?



2. While writing his important papers on evolution, where (approximately) was Alfred Russel Wallace?



3. What is the technical definition of a gene?



4. Briefly explain how gene redundancy can be a major contributor to evolutionary changes.



5. What is the current accepted definition of a species?



6. Why was the concept now called artificial selection so critical to Darwinís eventual ideas?



7. Briefly explain how evolution by sexual selection works.



8. Although Darwinís Theory of Natural Selection is sometimes called "survival of the fittest," something is more important than survival. What is it?


9. To set up his basic theory, Darwin asked his "audience" to accept several "given" points. What are two such points?




10. Describe the first few steps that can lead to fossilized footprints.





11. Darwinís theory is sometimes called "survival of the fittest," but what is actually more important than survival?



12. What, historically, seems to have been Alfred Russel Wallaceís most important contribution to science?



13. Briefly explain how the founder effect works.



14. Mutations are generally neutral or bad. Why, for each?




15. Give a genetic disease and its non-genetic disease counterpart associated with the process of hybrid vigor?





Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. Answer the following for the process of sexual reproduction:




2. What are four conditions that the Hardy-Weinberg Law insists are necessary to keep allele proportions in a population constant over time? (There are more than 4)









3. Thomas Malthus:

Basic ideas were about:

3 Different Limiting Factors:



4.Give a simple progression, according to Darwinís Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, from the beginning to the end here -

The environment around a population changes.











The population can now be considered a new species.

5. Describe - don't just name! - four basically different types of isolation that can lead to the development of new species.










6. What are four different materials that can surround an animal on its way to being a fossil?






Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

Jean Baptiste de LaMarck was not as stupid as he is often described. For Four Points, give one point explaining why his beliefs might be reasonable.



What two careers did Charles Darwin "try" before he became a scientist? Three Points Each.



What was Charles Darwin actually hired for in the HMS Beagle? Give a short description for Four Points.



Where are the Galapagos Islands? Be somewhat specific. Three Points.



What happened to the materials Alfred Russel Wallace gathered on his first major collection trip? Four Points.



Where did Wallace do most of his important work? There are two possible places - just name one, but be somewhat specific. Four Points.



Gregor Mendel did most of his genetics work on what organism? Four Points.




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