SC 139 - First Exam 2003



On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

1. An electron microscope has what advantage over a light microscope?

_______      a. It is less expensive                                b. It is simpler to use
                     c. It has much better resolution              d. Specimen preparation in easier
                                 e. Well, it must be heavier than a light microscope...


2. As cells get bigger, they run into difficulties connected to their

_______      a. Reproduction             b. Surface area              c. Movement 
                    d. Nucleus   
                                             e. Self esteem


3. Which would probably have the most complete fossil record?

_______      a. Butterflies                 b. Clams                 c. Dinosaurs
                     d. Trees                             e. Shouldnít that be "fossil CD"?


4. The central process of the scientific method is

_______      a. Theories             b. Controlled experiments            c. Perfect logic 
                    d. Broad agreement
               e. Wearing lab coats and pocket protectors


5. Uniformitarianism is a basic idea about

_______      a. How traits get passed on                     b. How organisms evolve
                    c. Microscope lens sequences                 d. The Earthís distant past
                                             e. How to invent really long words


6. A human windpipe has reinforcing rings, like a vacuum cleaner hose; like the hose, 
                            it keeps air suction from pulling the tube shut. The
windpipe and 
                            the hose are

_______      a. Analogous but not homologous
                     b. Homologous but not analogous
                     c. Both homologous and analogous
                     d. Neither homologous nor analogous
                     e. Two things you donít want caught in a closing door


7. Which was an element of Francisco Rediís experiments on spontaneous generation?

_______      a. Maggots                     b. Iguanas                    c. Pea plants 
                    d. Cork   
             e. Ummm...generation, of a spontaneous nature-?


8. Colonial describes

_______      a. Darwinís theory of movement to islands
                    b. How genes and alleles interact
                     c. The development of scientific method
                     d. Unicellular organisms that act multicellular
                     e. Those bloody Americans to a Londoner


9. In the statement, "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny," the ontology is

_______      a. Evolutionary development                         b. A sort of replay
                    c. Embryological development                      d. Fossilization
                    e. Not a word I want to learn - Iíve learned enough useless words


10. Which is an allowable species name?

_______      a. Generalis Hospitalis                     b. jerrius springerus  
c. Regius philbinus                          d. judgi Judyi
                             e. Man, Iíve got to get out of the house more...


11. A structure found in plant cells but not in animal cells:

_______      a. Cell wall                     b. Nucleus                     c. Chromosome
                     d. Cell membrane                         e. Chewy nougat


12. In hybrid form, the allele for cystic fibrosis helps carriers to resist

_______      a. Tuberculosis             b. Malaria              c. Diarrhea diseases 
                    d. Sickle-cell anemia
      e. Sorry, donít really want to make a joke about cystic fibrosis



Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. What are two different things that can be compared in order to find evolutionary connections between types of organisms?



2. What is meant by the term artificial selection?



3. What is the current biological definition of a species?



4. Whatís the main distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Be sure to include which one has what.



5. What is the general function of homeogenes?



6. The oldest forms of classification (as in Ancient Greek old) tended to put types into groups according to what two characteristics?



7. Briefly describe two different ways that the age of fossils can be determined



8. Why is it useful to section a specimen?



9. What is meant by a punctuated evolutionary pattern?



10. When a biologist has a disagreement about how a group is classified...

They are allowed

to do...

But they are NOT

allowed to do...

11. What are confounding factors?



12. Put these taxonomic groups in the proper order from smallest to largest: class, family, genus, kingdom, order, phylum, species, subfamily.









13. With what aspect of biology history were Malpighi, Hooke, and Leewenhoek associated?



14. Explain why it was once thought that species could not have gone extinct in the past.



15. Technically, what is a gene?





Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. What are the four parts of the Cell Theory?









2. Explain (donít just label!) the two major ideas about evolution that are connected to Lamarck.





3. What are four different materials that can surround an organism and eventually produce a fossil?






4. For four of the five Kingdoms of living things described in the course, give the name of the Kingdom and then give a combination of typical features that makes each Kingdom completely distinct from all the others (including the fifth).









5. Thomas Malthus:

Basic ideas were about:

3 Different Limiting Factors:

6. Give a simple progression, according to Darwinís Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, from the beginning to the end here - (You can answer the question correctly and not have the same number of steps as the number of lines here).

The environment around a population changes.










The population can now be considered a new species.

Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

For Three Points Each, answer about Carolus Linnaeus -

Real name? 


Other biological specialty?

What technological limitation led partly to how cladistics works? Three Points.



Electron microscopes must have a vacuum inside them. Why? Three Points.



About how long ago did Darwin live and work? Three Points.



Darwin disliked the use of "survival of the fittest" to describe Evolution by Natural Selection. Why? Three Points.



What is it about Indonesia that made it such a good place to develop ideas about evolution? Three Points.



For Three Points each -

What is a vestigial structure usually defined as?


What do they often turn out to be?



Why have some organisms evolved ways not to evolve? Three Points.


Michael McDarby.

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