SC 139 - First Exam 2013
Numbers are linked to relevant passages in the book.





On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best  answers the question.

Three Points Each.                              NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.


1.   A double-blind trial requires hiding of information from which
                                                group in particular for the “double” label?

_______                a.  Manufacturers of the materials

b.  Patients taking the materials

c.  Researchers that are running the tests

d.  Statisticians that are analyzing the data from the tests

e.  Whoever’s getting both eyes poked out



2.   A great many unrelated species have a wormlike form, great for

                        burrowing.  This is an example of

_______                a.  Divergent evolution                                b.  Convergent evolution

                             c.  De-evolution                                         d.  Form matching

e.  The general ickiness of Nature



3.   Which is most likely a product of artificial selection?

_______                a.  Great white shark                        b.  Timber rattlesnake

c.  Yellow rose                                d.  Giant sequoia tree

e.  I’d like to insult something with this, but I’m not sure how



4.   Whole areas of New York lack fossils from a broad range of times because

_______                a.  The fossil layers have been covered by cities

                             b.  Nothing was alive here during those times

c.  Those fossils have been destroyed

d.  They lacked the environment to form fossils

e.  The government won’t tell us about them



5.   Which is an allowable species name?

_______                a.  Examus difficilus                  b.  questionus questionus

c.  coursius Mcdarbius              d.  Studentus Insanus

e.  Herbert



6.   The “best” way to decide that two groups are different species is if they

a.  Can not produce offspring together

b.  Only produce sterile offspring

_______                c.  Will not breed together in their natural environment

         d.  All of these are considered equally good ways

e.  Never are friended with the other group



7.   The main purpose of a control test is to

_______                a.  Change the result                        b.  Give a specific comparison

c.  Determine the variable                d.  Confirm the results

                    e.  Um, control the test?



8.   The phrase ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny is about

_______                a.  Embryos and evolution 

                             b.  Measuring the age of fossils

                             c.  How science spreads ideas

d.  How modern species relate to fossil species

e.  About words nobody uses (or understands) anymore



9.   Assuming you can measure past processes by using present rates is

_______                    a.  Historicism                                   b.  Conservatism

                                 c.  Rate-leveling                                d.  Uniformitarianism

            e.  Just laziness at its worst



10.  Many fish suck in small prey like a vacuum.  The fish and the vacuum are

_______                a.  Homologous but not analogous

                             b.  Analogous but not homologous

                             c.  Both analogous and homologous

d.  Neither analogous nor homologous

e.  Starting up their own reality show



11.  What was Darwin’s main job on the Beagle?

_______                    a.  Perform experiments                 b.  Be the ship’s doctor

    c.  Collect specimens and data        d.  Keep the Captain company

e.  Flea-bath specialist



                     12.  You are going to get the clearest focus from the microscope with the

_______                    a.  Highest magnification                   b.  Strongest imaging beam

    c.  Thickest lenses                            d.  Best resolution

e.   Best rating from Consumers Reports



          Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight  will be corrected.

You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   How was spontaneous generation supposed to work?  Give a general answer rather than a specific example.




2.   What does it mean if a species is colonial?



3.   Darwin found that the amount of difference between living things on islands and the nearest mainland were connected to what two other differences?


4.   Give two brief, different ways that a researcher’s bias could affect how they set up and conduct an experiment.



5.   What do HOX genes do?



6.   Microscope specimens are often sectioned and stained.

They are


because -

They are


because –

7.   What was Wallace’s main contribution to biological history?




8.  Briefly explain why some church leaders were very much against the idea that past species had gone extinct.


9.   What is the current, best way to decide if a population is a distinct species?



10.  Family trees can be drawn using either of the classification approaches, but what sort of labels would be at the branching points for -




11.  Lamarck presented ideas that were widely-accepted but eventually shown not to be true.  What were two of those ideas?



12.  In modern science, what’s the most likely time for research to run into peer review?




13. Put the following groups in order from the largest to the smallest:  Class, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Species, Subclass, Superorder.
1 4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9

14. Briefly explain why, it is thought, cells tend to have a maximum size.




15.  In experiments, what is an artifact?


16.  Some experiments can only be done as field study.  Give one reason why this might be.





Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

You can get partial credit on these answers.


1.   Give a simple progression, according to Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, from the beginning to the end here - (You can answer the question correctly and not have the same number of steps as the number of lines here).
The environment around a population changes...





The population can now be considered a new species.


2.   What are the three bad effects that Malthus believed would happen to overpopulated groups in Nature?





3.   What are the four "rules" of the Cell Theory?







4.   Give the microscope types (just a category name) for each line -



5.   What are four different materials that can easily surround a dead organism and lead to its eventually becoming a fossil?







6.   For four of the six basic Kingdoms of Life, give the name of the Kingdom and enough features to clearly set that Kingdom's members apart from those of the other five.




Link to Answer Key




Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.


Linnaeus, the classification guy, had another area that he worked in extensively.  What was it?  Three Points.




Of the modern “Six Kingdoms,” which one was added most recently?  Three Points.



There is another approach to classification, which Mr. McDarby couldn’t remember the name of, and couldn’t explain anyway, but was in the book.  What was it?  Three Points.



The experimental variable – how exactly does it vary?  Three Points.



What was the problem with early magnification lenses?  Three Points.



Malpighi looked at fish tails and figured out what?  Three Points.




Why don’t animals have cell walls?  Three Points.




What is catastrophism?  Three Points.




What are the two species of Galapagos iguanas?  Two Points Each.




The beginning of Darwin’s most famous book isn’t about evolution – what’s it about?  Three Points.



What major animal phylum is most closely related to our phylum?  Three Points.




Michael McDarby.

SCI 139

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