SC 139 - First Exam 2014

Numbers are linked to relevant passages in the book.





On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best  answers the question.

Three Points Each.                  NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.


1.   In an experiment, the idea of blind refers to

_______                a.  Experimenters not seeing the results

b.  Not revealing the purpose of the testing

c.  Participants’ groups being hidden

d.  Trying it to see what will happen

e.  Using some of the “special” chemicals they cooked up


2.   The similarity in shape between submarines and whales is called

_______                a.  Analogy                b.  Taxonomy               c.  Homology

                            d.  Supergrouping                 e.  Embarrassing  


3.   One of the first ideas associated with fossils was strongly resisted by
                                                the Church. What was that idea?

_______                a.  Evolution                          b.  Age of the Earth

c.  Extinction                         d.  Spontaneous generation

            e.  That fossils were running things


4.   Sectioning is

_______                a.  Splitting a group into subgroups

                             b.  How one species becomes separate species

c.  Slicing specimens really thin for microscope work

d.  How different experimental groups are analyzed

e.  How they divide the cheap seats from the pricey ones


5.   Prokaryotes, compared to eukaryotes

_______                a.  Are never multicellular 

                             b.  Have no nucleus

c.  Are commonly called bacteria

d.  All of the above

                             e.  Are paid for what they do


6.   What part of Redi’s maggot experiment has become almost a

                                                universal detail of modern science?

a.  Use of living material                             b.  Using containers

_______                c.  Having a comparison test                       d.  Having a laboratory

                        e.  Being pretty nerdy



7.   Something in the way you set up an experiment changes your results.

                        The changed results, which are not from what you’re testing:

_______                a.  Artifact                                         b.  Contrafaction

c.  Selection bias                                d.  Divergence

                        e.  Your basic science screw-up



8.   Wallace’s work led directly to

_______                a.  Fossils being recognized as having once lived

                             b.  Microscopes being converted into telescopes

                             c.  Darwin publishing his ideas on evolution

d.  Discovery of prokaryotes

e.  My confusion at this point of the exam



9.   The current best explanation about why cells seem to have size

_______                 a.  Limits in numbers of gene codes

                              b.  How cells in multi-celled systems specialize

                              c.  The “jump” from prokaryote size to eukaryote size

  d.  The mathematical relationship between volume and surface

  e.  Something in their union contract



10.  Malthus is best known for writing an essay about

_______                    a.  Natural selection                         b.  Overpopulation

                                c.  Passing on of traits                      d.  Fossils

                                                e.  Stuff folks cared about long ago



11.  In an experiment, what term goes with the thing actually being tested?

_______                    a.  Control                 b.  Specimen              c.  Variable

                                d.  Result                                e.  Test thingy



                   12.  Uniformitarianism is applied to

_______                    a.  Kingdom sizes                 b.  Processes from the past

     c.  Comparing cells              d.  Conducting experiments

     e.  Um, jobs where everybody dresses alike?



Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight  will be corrected.

You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.   Briefly explain what works as the newest generally-accepted method of determining that a group counts as a separate species.




2.   Briefly explain what the “resolution of a microscope” means.




3.   Give two different reasons why an experiment must be done as a field study.

4.   Give two different examples of postmodernism working in the history of science covered so far.


5.   Give an example of something produced by artificial selection.




6.   What are the two categories of microscopes based upon how the imaging beam interacts with the specimens?


7.  Put the following groups in order from the largest to the smallest:  Class, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Species, Suborder, Superfamily.
1 4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9

8.   Darwin found that the differences between living things on islands and the mainland connected to what two other differences between the islands and mainland?

9.   In classification “family trees,” the points of branching connect to which detail in these approaches -







10.   Give one example (if it was true) of how spontaneous generation is supposed to work.



11.   If a species (single-celled or otherwise) is colonial, what does that mean?




12.  In an experiment, what is a placebo?




13.  In disagreements about classification, what are scientists -






    TO DO?

14a.  What is scientific peer review?




14b.  At what stage of the process is peer review commonly done?



15.  Darwin “set up” his theory of Natural Selection with three statements he knew people would agree with.  What are two of those statements?




Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note:  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.

You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.   What are the four "rules" of the Cell Theory?




2.   For four of the six basic Kingdoms of Life, give the name of the Kingdom and enough features to clearly set that Kingdom's members apart from those of the other five.





3.   What are four significant ways that electron microscopes are different from light microscopes?




4.   Binomial nomenclature involves rules for -



One rule -

Another different rule -

Yet another different rule -


5.   Give a simple progression, according to Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, from the beginning to the end here - (You can answer the question correctly and not have the same number of steps as the number of lines here).
The environment around a population changes

The population can now be considered a new species.



6.  For Jean Baptiste de LaMarck ‑ name or describe these ideas about evolution -

One that quickly fell

out of favor -

One that's wrong, but

many people still try

to apply it -






Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.


Briefly explain why creation stories from all around the world share many similarities.  Three Points.



The “original” 3 Kingdoms were animals, plants, and what?  Three Points.



Why did Karl call himself “Carolus”?  Three Points.



Why did people think that Redi’s meat couldn’t be in a sealed container?  Three Points.



Magnifying lenses had been around a long time before they became really good – what problem had to be solved first?  Three Points.




What did Malpighi’s work with goldfish show that had not been known before?  Three Points.



Robert Hooke came up with the term cells, but what he was looking at were not actually cells as they are called now.  Why not?  Three Points.



Much is known about the evolution of clams and snails.Why?  Three Points.




Why did the British Navy need someone like Darwin on its ship?  Three Points.



Where, approximately, are the Galapagos Islands that Darwin did important work on?  Three Points.


Michael McDarby.

SCI 139

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