SC 139 - First Exam 2016
Numbers are linked to relevant passages in the book.

On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

        1.  Which is true?

_______    a. Mutation is the only way to produce evolutionary change
                b. Evolution works faster in things that reproduce quickly
                c. Sexual reproduction always requires two parents
                d. All organisms evolve at about the same pace
                e. Why does none of this look familiar?

        2.  In which system does a “family tree” branch when important features appear?

_______    a. Taxodermy         b. Systematics        c. Genetics         d. Cladistics        e. The branchy-features system

            3.  What material needs to be present to preserve fossil footprints?

_______    a. Volcanic ash         b. A type of tree sap        c. Slimy mud         d. Tar
                            e. Well, you need footprints – is that a material?

            4.  Which is defined from group behavior in the natural habitat?

_______    a. Metabolism         b. Evolution        c. Species         d. Confounding factors
                                                    e. How viral a meme is

            5.  The experimental variable should vary

_______    a. Between the beginning and the results                            b. Among different experimental tests
                c. Between the experimental test and the control test           d. Whenever you measure it
                                            e. Because if it didn’t, it would be an invariable

            6.  Which would most likely be a product of HOX genes?

_______    a. Reproductive behavior                    b. Differences between two populations of the same species
                c. Adult strength                                 d. Determination of front end and back end
                                e. They control slang terms after they’re no longer trendy

            7.  Which is associated with more cell division mistakes?

_______    a. Paired chromosomes             b. High chromosome number            c. Mismatched chromosomes
                d. Low chromosome number                         e. Texting while dividing

            8.  Populations typically evolve rapidly when

_______    a. They need to improve             b. Conditions change around them            c. There are many mutations
                d. Their variation is limited                                e. They can get a big prize

            9.  The idea of hybrid vigor is used to explain what in a population?

_______    a. A higher energy production            b. A higher energy consumption            c. A number of genetic disease alleles
                d. Development of domesticated animals                    e. How people love their tiny cars

            10.  Uniformitarianism is a basic idea about

_______    a. How traits get passed on             b. How organisms evolve            c. Microscope lens sequences
                d. The Earth’s distant past                        e. How to invent really long words

            11. Researchers connect fossils to living groups using mostly

_______    a. Radioactive dating         b. Analogy        c. Homology         d. Genetic analysis
                                                    e. A really big dartboard

            12.  Colonial is a term used to describe

_______    a. Darwin’s theory of movement to islands                    b. How genes and alleles interact
                c. The development of scientific method                        d. Unicellular organisms that act multicellular
                                            e. Those bloody Americans to a Londoner


Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  For the types of living things found most commonly as fossils, give two different features they had when they were alive that contributed to them becoming fossils.


2.  What is the basic idea of “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”?

3.  Why was the concept now called artificial selection so critical to Darwin’s eventual ideas?

4.  What’s the main distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Be sure to include which one has what.


5.  Briefly explain how convergent evolution works.

6.  Give two different reasons why a researcher might be forced to do field study.


7.  When it was suggested that fossils were the remains of extinct animals, what accepted view of the world, based on an older interpretation of the Bible, was suddenly at risk?

8.  Lamarck is best known for what mistaken idea about evolution?

9.  What are the two categories of microscopes, based upon how the microscope’s beam interacts with the specimens? (NOT based on the type of beam)


10a. What widely-accepted idea was challenged by Redi’s experiment?

10b. What specific change was Redi trying to show didn’t happen?

11. In disagreements about classification, what are scientists -

12.  Put the following groups in order from the largest to the smallest: Class, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Species, Subfamily, Superclass.
1 4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9

13.  In a double-blind drug test, what two different groups are blinded?


14. Why is it useful to section a specimen?

15. In an experiment, what is an artifact?


Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.
1.  For four of the six basic Kingdoms of Life, give the name of the Kingdom and enough features to clearly set that Kingdom's members apart from those of the other five.





2.  What are the four “rules” of the Cell Theory?



3.  What are the three bad effects that Malthus believed would happen to overpopulated groups in Nature?


4.  What are four significant ways that electron microscopes are different from light microscopes?



5.  Give two different rules that apply specifically to each in binomial nomenclature:



6.  Give a simple progression, according to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, from the beginning to the end here - (You can answer the question correctly and not have the same number of steps as the number of lines here).
The environment around a population changes.

The population can now be considered a new species.

Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

The “first” Kingdoms of Nature were Animals, Plants, and what? Three Points.

Why is variation such an important feature of groups? Three Points.

Why should the word proof (or prove) not be used for scientific results? Three Points.

For triple-blind tests, what group is added? Three Points.

What turned out to be wrong with the aluminum produces Alzheimer’s experiment? Three Points.

Why is the classification guy known as Linnaeus if that wasn’t his name? Three Points.

Some living things live in “extreme” environments. For Two Points Each, what are examples of types of such environments?

Ancient people’s creation stories usually explained the beginning of a world just like the world they lived in. Why did that make sense at the time? Three Points.

The beginning of Darwin’s most famous book isn’t about evolution – what’s it about? Three Points.

Where did Alfred Russel Wallace do his work (2 Points), and why was that a good place to develop his theories (Three Points)?

Why are there almost no dinosaur fossils in New York State? Three Points.

Why did Mendel use pea plants for his work? Three Points.




Michael McDarby.

SCI 139

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