SCI 139 - First Exam 2019




MULTIPLE CHOICE.

On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.


        1. The modern definition of a species depends upon

_______    a. Ability to produce offspring only
                b. Ability to produce offspring that can then produce offspring
                c. Reproductive behavior in Nature
                d. Particular genetic differences
                e. They just make this stuff up, really


        2. Between single-celled and multi-celled, there are _______ organisms.

_______    a. No living         b. Colonial single-celled         c. Bipolar        d. Fungus         e. Indecisive


        3. Postmodernism is most closely related to what aspect of science?

_______    a. Terminology         b. Classification         c. Experiment design         d. Evolution
                            e. What kind of post is it? Wood, metal, Instagram-?


        4. Traits that are analogous but not at all homologous often result from

_______    a. Sharing an ancestor         b. Divergent evolution         c. The same cells
                d. Convergent evolution       e. Traits that should have stayed away from the dictionary


        5. Selective breeding of domestic animals and plants is also called

_______    a. Ontogeny             b. Survival of the fittest            c. Artificial selection
                d. Culling                            e. The lucky and the unlucky


        6. The most common form of academic peer review happens at which stage?

_______    a. Designing the experiment                  b. Running the experiment
                c. Publishing the results                        d. Drawing conclusions from the results
                        e. Whenever you least expect it - they’re like parents that way


        7. The relationship between volume and surface area comes into a discussion of

_______   a. Microscope resolution         b. Cell size limits        c. Lens magnification
                d. Cell group classification                e. Very science-y diets


        8. A double-blind study is designed to

________ a. Remove the placebo effect            b. Control for the placebo effect
                c. Remove the doctor’s influence     d. Better define the groups
                            e. Keep the room very, very dark


        9. An artifact is a

________ a. Result of the actual process / design of experimenting
                b. Part of the laboratory apparatus
                c. Second- or third-hand observation
                d. Characteristic of living cells.
                e. Is a true thing that Arthur told you


        10. Darwin’s ideas were based on uniformitarianism in that he thought that evolution

_______    a. Affected everything equally           
                b. Was a slow and gradual process
                c. Had worked differently in the distant past
                d. Would eventually make everything the same
                e. Was a silly idea, but it would make him the Big Bucks


        11. Which approach builds evolutionary “trees” where splits are tied to the appearance
                            of new traits?

_______    a. Cladistics         b. Systematics         c. Genetics        d. Division         e. Traiteology


        12. Many unrelated animal species with “wormy” shapes is an example of

_______    a. Classification overlap             b. Sexual selection            c. Convergent evolution
                d. Divergent evolution                            e. How nature can be disgusting



SHORT ANSWER.
Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. In Redi’s experiments on spontaneous generation, he was challenging the idea that a particular unliving material generated particular living things. What was -
The
material?
The living
thing?

2. Darwin noticed that how much living things differed between an island and the mainland seemed connected to two other relationships. What were they?


 

3.  Put the following groups in order from the largest to the smallest: Class, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Species, Subclass, Superorder.
1 4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9

4. What is the purpose of sectioning?



5. Give two sets of differences between -
PROKARYOTES EUKARYOTES

 

 

6. Briefly explain what a plasmid is.


7. In Malthus’ scary article about overpopulation, what were the three possible effects?  

 

8. Explain what this means: ontogeny recapitulates phlogeny.



9. The investigation of fossils almost immediately led to a concept that was, at the time, considered completely contrary to the Bible, although it isn’t today at all. What was the concept?


10. Why does a good experiment require a control test?



11. What are two different reasons why an experiment has to be done as a field test?


 

12. When a biologist believes that a group needs to be classified differently,
What can
they easily
do?
What are
they NOT
allowed to do?

13. What was a major contribution to science of Alfred Russel Wallace?


14. What are two different possible causes of mass extinctions?

 

15. Explain what is meant by the resolution of a microscope.


16. What is the purpose of HOX genes?



LONG ANSWER.
Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.

Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

4.  Give two different rules that apply specifically to each in binomial nomenclature:
FIRST
WORD


SECOND
WORD


ENTIRE
NAME



2. What are four different materials that can easily surround a recently-dead organism and lead to its eventually becoming a fossil?

 

 

3.  For four of the six basic Kingdoms of Life, give the name of the Kingdom and enough features to clearly set that Kingdom's members apart from those of the other five.

 

 

 

 

4. For Jean Baptiste de LaMarck, name or describe these ideas about evolution -
One that quickly fell
out of favor -
 
One that’s wrong, but many
people still try to apply it -

5.  Give the microscope types (just a category name) for each line -
TYPE OF BEAM
THE MICROSCOPE USES


WAY THE MICROSCOPE BEAM
INTERACTS WITH SPECIMENS



6.  What are the four “rules” of the Cell Theory?


 


 

7.  Give a simple progression, according to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, from the beginning to the end here - (You can answer the question correctly and not have the same number of steps as the number of lines here).
The environment around a population changes.





The population can now be considered a new species.

Link to Answer Key

BONUS QUESTIONS.

Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

Why was Karl known as “Carolus”? Three Points.


What was Redi’s real hypothesis about maggots? Three Points.


What is the “extra” level in a triple-blind trial? Three Points.


The concept of postmodernism got its start in what area of human production? Three Points.

What problem had to solved before lenses could be used in microscopes? Three Points.


What did Malpighi discover by magnifying goldfish tails? Three Points.



Why did Darwin take every opportunity to get off the HMS Beagle? There are two reasons, for Three Points Each.



Where did Alfred Russel Wallace do his major research (Two Points), and why was that such a good place for it (Three Points)?



What are the overlaps of different fossil beds used for? Three Points.



How can there be sexual selection for asexual species? Three Points.

 

Michael McDarby.

SCI 139

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