SCI 139 - Second Exam 2017


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

        1. Phloem

_______    a. Helps support the plant         b. Carries sugar-rich water        c. Produces new cells
                d. Carries nutrient-rich water                e. Would make a good sound effect

        2. For a long time, biological theories about the origin of Life on Earth from starting molecules
                    were hard to produce because it was thought that the first major step would have to produce

_______    a. Plants         b. Animals        c. Dinosaurs         d. Vertebrates
                    e. A story whose movie rights would bring in big bucks

        3. Which relies on fungal symbionts to live?

_______    a. Algae         b. Insects         c. Bacteria        d. Land plants         e. Politicians

        4. Which presented a challenge for the first land organisms?

_______    a. Excess oxygen         b. Reproduction        c. Support         d. All of these
                                                        e. No place to get coffee

        5. Most genetic point mutations produce what sort of effects?

_______    a. None or minimal         b. Bad – diseases        c. Good - improvements         d. None of these
                                                                    e. Weird laser effects

        6. Which relates to ecospecies?

_______    a. Parts of a food chain        b. Same functions, different locations        c. Close relatives
                d. Evolutionary partners                        e. If it’s slimy: “Eeek! A species!”

        7. Which algae can grow the deepest?

_______    a. Golden         b. Red         c. Green        d. Brown         e. The best breath-holder

        8. What was the source of the organic materials in primordial soup?

_______    a. First cells         b. First plants        c. Space dust         d. All of these
                        e. Well, was it a condensed soup, or more of a stew-?

        9. Which is NOT considered a terrestrial (land) group?

_______    a. Snails         b. Plants         c. Dinosaurs        d. Birds         e. You couldn’t list fish?

        10. ______ organisms can move into new or recovering ecosystems.

_______    a. Producer         b. Colonizer         c. Establishing        d. Pioneer         e. Advantage-taking

        11. Hybrid vigor can explain how

_______   a. Genetic diseases can become more common in a population
                b. How marrying cousins can actually be a good thing
                c. Alternation of generations began
                d. Crossing two species can produce a new species
                e. You can get vigor from a hybrid

        12. A broad layer of rusty sedimentary rock is a marker for

_______    a. The first major animal groups                 b. The rise of photosynthesis
                 c. The appearance of land plants                d. The Snowball Period
                                            e. The Pre-Rustproofing Era


Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1. What are two totally different ways that plants use carotenoids?

2. What are two totally different ways that plants use glucose?

3. The first photosynthesis systems were most likely a combined form of which two pre-existing systems?

4. What were most likely the “staging areas” from which animals and plants evolved into land forms?

5. What are two different materials not directly used in photosynthesis that plants require?

6. Briefly explain what makes a dominant allele dominant. What produces the dominance effect?

7. What is the founder effect?

8. What are two different features that must apply to an allele for the Hardy-Weinberg Rule to work?

9. Briefly explain panspermia.

10. Define alternation of generations without using the words “alternate” or “generations.”

11. For a high chromosome number, compared to a low number -


12. Show the basic reaction of photosynthesis.

13. Give two different types of examples of memetic traits.

14. What are two different properties of water that help it move up a plant vascular system? You can give a term or a description.

15. Briefly explain how a molecular clock works.



Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers. 
1.  For each step in the theoretical development of Life on Earth, put them in chronological order, from earliest to latest, 1 - 8 in the boxes to the left.
Photosynthesis "Snowball"
Life on


2.  The very first living things would have needed some basic traits to be considered “living”...
Two traits needed in the early molecule systems

 Two traits that weren’t needed at first, but had to appear before long

3.  At the points labeled with the stars, attach the appropriate labels from this list: Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.
         High Frequency           \               Visible Range                     /                  Low Frequency                    
            *                       *      /     *       *                                   *     \     *     

4.  Describe (don’t just give a simple label!) four different isolating situations that can lead to the evolution of new species from the same starting group.


5.  Other than the genders involved, give four sets of differences between -




6.  For asexual reproduction -
definition -
compared to sexual -
Common adaptation to compensate for that disadvantage -
7. Give the steps and forms involved in the life cycle of a fern.


Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

Why did Mendel do his work with pea plants? Three Points.

What scientist is considered the “father” of biogeography? Three Points.

The first experiment to see if primordial soup could generate more-complex molecules used what as an energy source? Three Points.

Why haven’t reptiles that live only in the water evolved the ability to breathe water? Three Points.

What is “Nemesis?” Three Points.

Why is disease a very unlikely main cause of mass extinctions? Three Points each.

What sorts of light can some animals see but we can’t? Three Points.

How can ocean fish blend in / camouflage with the bright colors they show in fish tanks? Three Points.

What is the purpose of a polar body, usually? Three Points.


SCI 139 

Michael McDarby

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