SC 139 - Fourth Exam Fall 2022


 On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best  answers the question.
Three Points Each.
                  NOTE:  "e" answers are never the correct answer.

1.  A swim bladder’s main advantage is that it

_______            a.   Conserves energy                                b.   Improves respiration
                        c.   Is used as a jet propulsion system        
d.   Changes the overall shape
                        e.   Helps on those long commutes with no rest rooms available

2.  Sea cucumbers are most closely related to

_______            a.  Sharks         b.  Sea squirts           c.  Slime eels           d.  Sea urchins
                                 e.  There sure are some weirdly-named animals in the world…


3.  The water vascular system of Echinoderms does most of the work
that is done in other animals by

_______              a.  Gills            b.  Blood vessels            c.  Skeleton          d.  Muscles
e.  Household servants


4.  The very last challenge in both plants and vertebrates for the move
from water to land involved

_______            a.  Respiration           b.  Reproduction                  c. Support
                         d.  Drying                       e.  Couldn’t see their friends anymore 


                 5. A sea squirt is most closely related to a

_______           a.  Tuna          b.   Lancelet            c.  Brittle Star
                       d.  Sting ray                 e.   Swimming pool “accident” 


6.  Which groups has as a group-wide feature a very large mouth?

_______           a.  Amphibians             b.  Birds          c.  Cartilage fish            d.  Sting ray
e.  Too easy, too easy...


7.  Where would you look for species that are pelagic?

_______            a.  Ocean bottom           b.  Fresh water          c.  Open ocean           d.  Caves
                                                                e.  Do I really want to find one? 


8.  A notochord can be important to

_______             a.  Movement & development                b.  Coordination & digestion
                          c.  Feeding & development                    d.  Movement & digestion
                                              e.  Many biology-type questions 


9. Which would have embryos whose cells divide evenly (radial cleavage)?

_______             a.   Centipedes and goldfish               b.  Earthworms and snake
                         c.   Starfish and shark                        d.  Snail and grasshopper
                            e.   It certainly wouldn’t be polite to ask them, would it? 


10.  Birds migrate because the change of seasons

_______             a.  Takes away their main foods                        b.  Will get too cold for them
                          c.  Signals the flight to breeding grounds            d.  Produces storms that they can’t deal with
                                                    e.  Gives the great deals on rentals


11.   Which are endothermic?

_______             a.  Starfish and squids            b.  Lizards and sharks             c.  Alligators and turtles
d.  Crows and kangaroos               e.  Sounds like something you need medication for 


12.  The final, critical adaptations for land vertebrates involved

_______             a.  Lungs & glandular skin                            b.  Endothermy & endoskeletons
                         c.  Internal fertilization & amniote eggs          d.  Scales & legs
                                        e.  Sunblock and tropical vacations



Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
  if you answer more than eight, only the first eight  will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

 1.  Two features found in echinoderms but never or rarely in other major groups:





 2.  What are the two layers of vertebrate skin?





 3.  What are the two surviving types of jawless fish?





 4.  Briefly explain why pharyngeal pouches are associated with filter feeding.



 5.  What are the two circulation “loops” found in most vertebrates?





 6.  For the major types of cartilage fish, give the type and what sort of air-flying object / animal their swimming resembles.





 7.  Many land animals produce metabolic wastes in the form of uric acid.  Why?


 8.  What are two different functions associated with amphibian skin glands?





 9.  What are two non-dinosaur extinct groups of reptiles?





 10.  What is unusual about the tails of chordates?



 11.  It can be tough to see whether an animal has a backbone, so what feature do you look for instead?


 12a.  What is an operculum?


 12b.  What group has an operculum?

 13.  What are the “tetrapods?”



 14.  Metamorphosis is a common feature in what two class-level groups?





 15.  What are the two subgroups of the amphibians?





 16.  Why is sexual selection more of an evolutionary driver in birds than in other groups?



Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
  if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.  What are four different subgroups / Orders within the largest mammal subgroup?



2.   Three major subgroups of reptiles (still living) - each has two "types" within it...

3.  For four basic features of birds that relate to flight, name the adaptation and then explain how it helps birds to fly.





4.  For four of the major vertebrate groups (the big groups within the vertebrates), name the group and give one feature that each group has that none of the others do.





5.  For the subgroups of mammals, give the:
Name: Reproductive distinction: One animal in group:





6.  Give the three sets of differences between the central nerve cords in...




Link to Answer Key


Answer as many as you are able.  Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam.   You can get partial credit on these answers.


There was a video posted at the beginning of the semester.  What was it about?  Three Points. 


What body form shows up in group after unrelated group?  Three Points. 


Why do sharks really have to keep swimming?   Three Points. 


Why should you only “stroke” a shark’s skin in one direction?  Three Points. 


How do reptile scales differ from fish scales?  Three Points. 


The birdlike features of Archaeopteryx were discovered how?  Three Points.


What is a brood parasite?  Three Points. 


How did museum officials react to the first platypus specimens sent to them?  Three Points.



SCI 139 

Michael McDarby